Sulla Via del Catai - Nr. 15, Dicembre 2016
PRUA A ORIENTE
IL TRATTATO SINO-ITALIANO DEL 1866 E I SUOI SVILUPPI
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DE GIORGI, Laura e PIASTRA, Stefano
UN PUNTO DI SVOLTA: IL TRATTATO SINO-ITALIANO DEL 1866 IN RETROSPETTIVA, pag. 11
A Turning Point: the Sino-Italian Treaty (1866). A Retrospective Reconsideration.
IL TRATTATO DEL 1866 E L’EVOLUZIONE DEI RAPPORTI FRA ITALIA E CINA IN EPOCA QING, pag.19
The 1866 Sino-Italian Treaty and the Evolution of the Relations between Italy and China in the Late Qing Dynasty
Abstract: The first Sino-Italian treaty was signed in Beijing on October 26th, 1866. However, the treaty didn’t mark a
new phase in the bilateral relations, because of Italy’s poor economic interests in the Middle Kingdom. Only in the late 1880s did Italy become aware of the fact that the Chinese diplomatic scene could provide a good opportunity to improve its foreign relations and finally decided to take an active part in the treaty system.
GLI OCCHI DEL DIPLOMATICO, GLI OCCHI DEL NATURALISTA. PERCEZIONI DELLA CINA NELLE RELAZIONI PARALLELE DI VITTORIO ARMINJON ED ENRICO HYLLIER GIGLIOLI, pag. 29
The Eyes of the Diplomat, the Eyes of the Naturalist. Perceptions of China in the Travel Reports by Vittorio Arminjon and Enrico Hyllier Giglioli
Abstract: The 1866 Italian mission, whose success put the basis for formal diplomatic relations between the Qing Empire and the Kingdom of Italy, was described in two travel reports written in retrospective, one by the officer Vittorio Arminjon, political leader of the mission (published in 1884); the other by Enrico Hyllier Giglioli, naturalist involved in the expedition (published in 1876). Arminjon’s report is strictly focused on diplomatic issues, giving almost no emphasis to Chinese landscapes or cultural themes; Giglioli’s report shows a genuine scientific interest both for biological and human issues, analyzing rural (Jangsu Province, Bohai Sea coastline) and urban areas (Shanghai, Tianjin).
PATERNICO', Luisa LA BOCCA E LE ORECCHIE DI ARMINJON IN CINA pag. 47
Arminjon’s Mouth and Ears in China
Abstract: The lack of Italian interpreters in Arminjon’s mission to China has often been criticized. This short
paper tries to answer the following questions: who could Arminjon have asked for linguistic support in China? Could he have brought someone from Italy? Could he have asked the Italian China missionaries? Which factors influenced his judgments? How can we ultimately judge his decisions? Our conclusion is that Arminjon made the only possible, reasonable, strategically wise choice for the newborn Kingdom of Italy.
IL REAL COLLEGIO ASIATICO E LA FORMAZIONE DI INTERPRETI E DIPLOMATICI ITALIANI PER L’ESTREMO ORIENTE, pag. 59
The Royal Asiatic College and the Training of Interpreters and Diplomats for the Far East
Abstract:In the aftermath of the Second Opium War, Italy was still without a diplomatic representative in China. Apart from political issues, one of the most urgent issue was the lack of capable interpreters of Chinese language. The Italian leaders were thus forced to ask the religious institution known as the Collegio de’ Cinesi (Chinese College) in Naples for Chinese speakers. This paper aims to look through the contribution given by this College in terms of interpreters and diplomatic services and to give a brief summary of the alumni who worked for the newborn Italian government.
LE ROTTE PER LA CINA TRA XIX E XX SECOLO pag. 73
Maritime Routes to China in the 19th and 20th centuries
Abstract: After the opening of the Suez Canal and the Sino-Italian Treaty (1866), the necessity of reliable and systematical maritime routes between Italy and China became a prominent issue among the Italian elites. In a first phase, some occasional attempts to open these routes were made by the Navigazione Generale Italiana [Italian General Navigation Company]. In the early 20th century the new-founded Italian Chamber of Commerce in China, based in Shanghai, strengthened the efforts, but only after WWI the problem was solved by the Lloyd Triestino, a navigation company based in Trieste.
LA CONOSCENZA GEOGRAFICA DELLA CINA IN ITALIA TRA OTTO E NOVECENTO, pag. 85
China’s Geographical Knowledge in Italy between the 19th and the 20th centuries
Abstract: Sunzi’s Strategy Book recommends to obtain the geographic knowledge and mapping of the enemy territory before taking any action (of any kind: military, commercial or missionary). By contrast, the modus operandi of the Kingdom of Italy appears to have always been the opposite: first engage overseas initiatives without any planning strategy (such as Assab, Abyssinia, Somalia, Libya, Rhodes), and only later get the necessary geographical knowledge. The case of the Tianjin Concession (then spelled as “Tien-tsin”) confirms this modus operandi.
DE GIORGI, Laura
I TRATTATI INEGUALI FRA STORIA, POLITICA E IDEOLOGIA, pag. 97
The Unequal Treaties. History, Politics and Ideology
Abstract: The 1866 Treaty between the Italy and China was one of the famous “unequal treaties” that the Qing
dynasty signed with Western Powers and later Japan since the First Opium War. Until the Second World War these treaties offered a legal justification to the foreign privileges and concessions, and severely limited the Chinese State’s sovereignty. Nevertheless, the issue of the “unequal treaties” is a complicated one, since legal, political and ideological factors have all contributed to shape the meaning attributed to them by the Chinese élites as well as the response to them. This article offers an outline of the shifting perceptions of the treaties in China through the 20th century.
DIPLOMAZIA E COMMERCIO NELLE RELAZIONI FRA L’ITALIA E LA REPUBBLICA DI CINA: IL TRATTATO DEL 1928, pag. 111
Diplomacy and Trade in the Relations between Italy and the Republic of China: the 1928 Treaty
Abstract: With the 1928 Treaty between Italy and China, a new stage in the relations between the two countries was opened. In this period Mussolini aimed to impress a more assertive direction to the Italian foreign policy in East Asia. At the same time the Nanjing government, headed by Chiang Kai-shek, looked for a revision of the previous treaties, obtained the tariff autonomy and operated to gain international support to its modernization plans.
The 1928 Treaty was a starting point of the so-called ‘Golden Age’ in the Sino-Italian relations, thanks to the role played by Galeazzo Ciano, and had positive, though moderate, effects on the bilateral trade. However, in the second half of the 1930s, the cooperation between the two countries began to worsen, until they broke up during the Second World War.
L’ACCORDO COMMERCIALE FRA ITALIA E REPUBBLICA POPOLARE CINESE DEL 1964, pag. 123
The 1964 Trade Agreement between Italy and the People’s Republic of China
Abstract: On November 30th 1964 the Republic of Italy and the People’s Republic of China signed an agreement for the establishment of reciprocal commercial representatives.
Although this unlocked the state of immobility in which the Italian government had been long lingering not to upset the US, it was not a decisive move: 1) Both chief representatives enjoyed diplomatic statuses. Nevertheless, the Italian government deliberately preferred to keep a low profile by sending a commercial expert. 2) In 1966 China was washed by the Cultural Revolution, which chaotically affected economic and diplomatic activities until 1968. These two facts weakened the weight of the agreement.
LA REPUBBLICA POPOLARE CINESE E L’ITALIA NEL SISTEMA DEGLI ACCORDI ECONOMICI E COMMERCIALI INTERNAZIONALI, pag. 143
The People’s Republic of China and Italy in the World Trading Agreement System
Abstract: Since 1979, several economic and commercial treaties have been concluded between Italy and China, reflecting the evolution of their bilateral relations and the changes in the world economic system. Especially after 2001, the admission of the People’s Republic of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO) has reshaped the legal context where Sino-Italian commercial exchanges took and take place.
This article looks at the trade agreements between China and Italy from the perspective of their changing role in the global context.