Sulla Via del Catai - Nr. 13, Novembre 2015
UNA CIOTOLA DI RISO
CIBO E CULTURA DEL CIBO FRA ITALIA E CINA
Il volume si propone di esplorare la storia della cultura del cibo in Cina e in Italia, focalizzandosi sulle differenti tradizioni e visioni culinarie e soffermandosi sulle tradizioni mutuate dal taoismo, sulla millenaria tradizione del tè, sulla storia degli scambi tra la Cina e l’Occidente e sulla modernità, cercando di essere anche un utile strumento per gli operatori del settore.
Sfoglia le prime pagine
CIBO E CULTURA DEL CIBO IN CINA, pag. 5
Food and food culture in China
IL CIBO E LA STORIA: METODI E RICERCA, pag. 9
Food and history: methods and research,
Abstract: The food cultures of both Italy and China, visible and appreciated all over the world, have a complex past, deeply rooted in their history. Productive, cultural and scientific phenomena and transformations have influenced the development not only of cooking techniques but also of the symbolic and social values related to food. The research on these two culinary traditions shows how historical research is an important key to understand the origin and the development of culinary cultures. At the same time, not only does history help us better understand food in all of its aspects, it is the food itself that can help us to understand history and its dynamics.
PIÙ CHE LA DIETA POTÉ IL DIGIUNO.
BREVI CONSIDERAZIONI SULL’ALIMENTAZIONE NEL DAOISMO TRADIZIONALE, pag. 21
Fasting got more than diet. Short remarks on nutrition in traditional Daoism
Abstract: Since the most ancient times, forms of religion in China made use of food to celebrate their rituals and to establish a communication with the Divine. Food was central in these ceremonies as proven by archeology and literature. Daoism practices in China are strictly bound to a special diet; less known, on the other hand, is that food also had a very important role in defining daoist liturgy. This article explores the history of the gradual process that, from the rejection of ancient bloody rituals, led to an abstinence from meat and to a more organized system of fasts and practices to maintain a pure body and a pure mind.
IL SIGNIFICATO SIMBOLICO DEL CIBO NELLE FESTE TRADIZIONALI CINESI, pag. 43
The symbolic meaning of food in traditional Chinese festivals
Abstract: Chinese dishes often have imaginative names, sometimes impossible to translate. These can be identified only knowing the culture, traditions and language of the country. This is most true for food and dishes related to traditional Chinese festivals because of the large amount of homophones in Mandarin Chinese, which leave space for puns and, especially during festivals, are bearer of hope and positive meanings (like wealth and health) and which are also bound to Chinese history and traditional culture. The article deals with the main Chinese festivals and their typical food, in order to briefly illustrate their qualities and meanings in today’s China
VISIONI DELL’ALCOL E DEL TÈ NELLE FONTI CINESI, pag. 55
Visions of alcohol and tea in Chinese sources,
Abstract: Tea and alcohol have a peculiar dialectic relation within Chinese culture. This paper offers an overview of the production of alcoholic drinks in ancient China and of the different conceptions of their use. The Confucian ethic condemned the unregulated and excessive consumption of alcohol, but promoted its ritual use as an expression of social order. Accordingly, alcohol was abused by some scholars as a tool to protest social norms and fulfill a Daoist inspired carefree harmony with nature. Buddhism was the first doctrine to introduce the ideological bases for the complete abstention from alcohol in China. Tea originally was a stimulant widespread only in Southern China. Its consumption was adopted and popularized by Buddhist clergy as a ritual substitute for alcohol. In the 8th century, tea drinking became popular also in the North, and its appreciation entered the customs of the Confucian elite.
MARCO POLO E LA PASTA UNA STORIA TROPPO SEMPLICE, pag. 73
Marco Polo and pasta a too simplistic narration
Abstract: Italy and China share a strong tradition of pasta based preparations . The centrality of wheat in these two culinary cultures have raised the question who was the first to “invent” pasta and, despite the fascinating theory of Marco Polo coming back to Italy with a bunch of spaghetti, archeological and textual evidences show how the history of this precious food is not so simple and should not be simplified.
CON GLI OCCHI DELL’ALTRO: IL CIBO CINESE NELLE FONTI GESUITE DEL XVII SECOLO, pag. 83
With the eyes of the other: Chinese food in the Jesuit sources of the seventeenth century
Abstract: Since the Great Maritime Era, as geographical exploration by Westerners expanded, information on Chinese diet in the West surpassed previous decades. Information about Chinese food and products was constantly sent back to Europe. In this period, Portuguese travelers were the main and first means through which Chinese food culture be- gan to spread in the West. Moreover, in the mid and late 16th century, Jesuits in China became the main group for spreading “Chinese food into the West”(Zhongshi Xichuan中食 西传). They systemically transmitted data to Europe through missionary reports, letters and literature thus relaying - sometimes with some misunderstanding - Westerners’ ideas on Chinese food.
DE TROIA, Paolo,
YUAN MEI, UN CELEBRE GASTRONOMO CINESE DEL XVIII SECOLO, pag. 95
Yuan Mei, a famous Chinese gastronomist of the 18th-century
Abstract: China has a strong culinary tradition and a long history of food culture. In a panorama like that, of course it is possible to find many gourmets and gourmands that devoted their works - and often their lives - to eating and drinking well. Among these, Yuan Mei is maybe one of the most celebrated. After a brief career in the institution- al system, in fact, he decided to devote himself to the pursuit of art and pleasure for which he created a specific place: The Sui Garden in Nanjing. His tastes and experiences in food found place in his Recipes from the Sui Garden. This article briefly presents the author and his work.
QUANTE BOCCHE DA SFAMARE: L'ECO DELLE NOTIZIE SULLA GEOGRAFIA DELL'ALIMENTAZIONE IN CINA, pag. 109
How many mouths to feed: the echo of the news on the geography of food in China
Abstract: Westerners have always daydreamed about the huge amount of food produced in China. The marvelous tales of Marco Polo were mixed with legends about the Land of Plenty (Cockaigne). It was Martino Martini the first to provide European intellectuals with concrete and accurate data on China through the publication of his atlas in 1655. These fresh and up-to-date news on the demographics and agricultural production in China, provoked reactions in many European thinkers of that time, such as Quesnay, Swift, Hume, Smith, Voltaire, Paoletti and Cattaneo.
CON GLI OCCHI DELL’ALTRO: IL CIBO OCCIDENTALE NELLE FONTI CINESI, pag.125
With the eyes of the other: western food in Chinese sources
Abstract: Food offering has always been one of the primary forms of communication, not only to contact deities but, most importantly, to connect with other people. Among cultural products, food is one of those having major influence on both local and national identity and may be one of the more difficult to abandon or renounce. The diffusion process of Western food culture in China has been very long and is still in progress. This article explores and illustrates the first stages which have characterized this process, mostly looking at written sources in order to give a first idea on how and when Western food entered China and how it was greeted by Chinese people.
GUIDO, CIBO E POLITICA: L’ESPERIENZA DI ZHANG NAIQI, pag. 139
Food and politics: the experience of Zhang Naiqi
Abstract: Born in Zhejiang province, Zhang Naiqi (1897-1977) was active during the Republican period in the field of industry and business and at the same time became involved in political and intellectual movements, which aimed at creating a large patriotic front in China in order to push Chiang Kaishek’s government to stop anticommunist campaigns and resist Japanese aggression. After 1949, he became Minister of Food (or according to different sources Head of the Food Department) within the Chinese government, hardly working on the problems related to agricultural production and organization of peasants’ livelihood. His ideas were criticized in the 1957 Anti-Rightist Campaign together with other personalities like Luo Longji and Zhang Bojun, and he was stripped of all his positions between late 50s and early 60s. He died in 1977 in Bei- jing.
SHANZHEN HAIWEI, IL TESORO DELLA MONTAGNA E IL GUSTO DEL MARE.
LA RISTORAZIONE CINESE IN ITALIA, TRA PREGIUDIZIO E TRADIMENTI, pag. 147
Shanzhen Haiwei, The mountain treasure and the taste of the sea.
Chinese catering in Italy, between prejudice and betrayals
Abstract: Chinese restaurants are quite a new reality in Italy and are often managed by people who have nothing to do with the ancient and flourishing tradition of Chinese cuisine. Moreover, these people in most cases come from the same region, Zhejiang, which, though having its own culinary tradition, cannot fully represent the variety and richness of the Chinese cuisine. The aim of this article is to focus on the reality of Chinese restaurants in Italy giving at the same time some data and information on the guiding principle beneath the traditional cuisine in China.